Since entering the 21st century, the urbanization process has been accelerating, a large number of people are pouring into the cities, and the housing situation is becoming more and more serious and the contradictions are becoming more and more acute, as can be seen from the government work report, the housing contradictions have already attracted the high attention of the Party and the State. In such a social background, the author focuses on Xi’an city and analyzes the policy of shared ownership housing from four aspects.
1.1 Domestic environment
In 2007, the model of common ownership housing was born in Huai’an City, Jiangsu Province, and in the process of promotion, it gradually won the recognition of all sectors of the society and attracted the attention of the national level, which was called the “Huai’an model”. In the government work report in 2014, the concept of common property rights housing was defined, which means that the various policy property rights housing previously launched in China were integrated and common property rights became a new type of supply.
In October 2017, based on the consent of the whole society, Beijing officially implemented the policy of common property rights. The biggest difference with the various kinds of guaranteed and policy housing launched before is that this policy should follow the principle of “recycling and benefiting the public” in the process of promotion, and the nature of property rights will never be changed; In September 2017, Fuzhou City submitted an application for housing with shared property rights; in June 2018, the Guangdong Provincial Department of Housing and Construction issued a guiding document on the development of housing with shared property rights and designated five cities as pilot areas for housing with shared property rights.
1.2 Internal environment
In 2017, based on the current situation of development, Xi’an City adjusted its household registration policy and relaxed its household registration access conditions on the premise of accurately grasping the household registration management policy. After the implementation of the new policy, the number of population in Xi’an has been growing, and the number of newly settled population was as high as 250,000 in 2017 alone. According to statistics, from New Year’s Day to the end of February 2018, the newly settled population exceeded 140,000, and among this population, the introduction of outstanding talents accounted for about 60%, with a minimum education of university specialist.
In March 2018, the municipal government issued a management document on the placement of newly introduced talents, clearly stating that a three-dimensional talent housing security system should be built to meet the diversified housing needs of millions of talents, create a social environment that respects talents, and then build a more attractive and competitive talent highland. Xi’an City has set aside about 20% of the residential land to sell houses in the form of common property rights, which effectively reduces the cost of purchasing houses and helps families with immediate housing needs and low income to solve their housing problems.
2 Operation mode
2.1 Strict land planning standards
For the policy of shared ownership housing, land planning standards are the prerequisite and fundamental for the implementation of the policy. Xi’an City has developed land planning standards based on local conditions, comprehensive planning and reasonable layout.
Firstly, the housing security department has integrated various factors such as the demand for shared ownership housing and the environmental bearing capacity of Xi’an, reasonably predicted the problems that may occur during the implementation of the shared ownership housing policy, formulated a scientific and effective medium and long-term construction plan, and drawn up an annual construction plan.
Secondly, the structural reform on the supply side of land is always put in the most important position, and the “two 20%” is strictly observed to reasonably arrange the land for the construction of common property rights.
Thirdly, Xi’an is an ancient civilized city with rich cultural heritage and a large number of famous monuments. In the process of implementing the policy of shared ownership housing, all technical and economic indicators should be in line with the requirements of urban and rural planning management, and not at the cost of destroying cultural relics.
2.2 Wide range of housing sources
From the viewpoint of housing source collection channels, there are diversified characteristics, mainly including the following three kinds. First, the centralized new construction, making full use of the market mechanism, through the project bidding, to determine the construction of real estate development enterprises by a good qualification and reputation. The second is the unified acquisition from the social housing sources. In the specific operation process, the government is supposed to play an important leading role, and under the common supervision of the whole society, it follows the principle of fairness and transparency to raise housing sources in various ways. This model puts high demands on the housing security department to base on the operation of local real estate, accurately grasp the actual needs of security recipients and acquire housing sources under the approval of the provincial government. Third, the unit self-build model, the construction plan should be discussed by several departments, such as the Ministry of Land and Planning and the Housing Authority.
2.3 Standardized review and supply procedures
Regardless of which method is adopted to raise housing sources, stricter requirements are imposed on the housing units, with the average floor area per household not exceeding 90 m2 within the same project. the sales of shared ownership housing are handled by the housing security department and are conducted in two ways: public lottery and waiting list, which are issued by the housing security department of Xi’an, including the location of the houses, the number of housing units, the average sales price After obtaining the qualification form, applicants can register on the online platform and follow the procedures for home purchase. The order of housing selection will be conducted in accordance with the “number shaking” method. If there are remaining housing units after the number shaking, they can be used as long term rental apartments or government talent apartments after the approval of the housing security department.
3.1 Subjects of supply
From the general situation of Xi’an, it is mainly for families with immediate housing needs and economic income in the middle and lower levels of society as well as foreign talents without free housing, and the application conditions consist of age, household registration or talent recognition. It is important to emphasize one point here, that is, any resident with a household registration in the city, or a resident with a foreign household registration who has obtained a residence permit, or a special talent introduced by the city can apply for shared ownership housing, which is closely linked to the new policy of household registration access introduced by Xi’an from 2017 to ensure that the influx of a large number of talents into Xi’an is accompanied by a solution to their housing difficulties and freedom from housing worries.
3.2 Implementing agency
In the process of implementing the policy, Xi’an City has set up a working committee on housing security in due course to undertake various tasks related to shared ownership housing, such as coordinating matters, communicating and coordinating among various departments, and supervising the concrete implementation of the policy. In this process, the housing security department is an important administrative authority, responsible for formulating relevant policies and systems, drawing up reasonable development plans, and guiding the implementation of specific work, as well as arranging various aspects of common ownership housing in each district and county, including the collection, sale, withdrawal and management of housing.
4.1 Economic characteristics
Shared-ownership housing is fundamentally different from ordinary commercial housing and belongs to the category of public goods. Conceptually, it is actually a quasi-public good. By enacting a series of policies and measures, the government provides shared ownership housing, which is a private good, to Xi’an residents as a quasi-public good, which can make up for and correct the imbalance between supply and demand in the housing market, achieve harmonious social development and attract talents.
4.2 Social policy characteristics
The policy of shared ownership housing is a housing security policy introduced in Xi’an at a specific development period. In practice, the social policy characteristics are specifically manifested in special property rights and special objects.
4.2.1 Special property rights
In the process of implementing this policy, the city of Xi’an clearly states that the property rights of the housing with shared ownership are jointly owned by the guarantee recipients and the government, and their respective shares are determined through negotiation, and all residents who have a city residence or have obtained a residence permit can apply to the government for purchase as long as they do not have a housing transaction within five years. Since the purchasers do not own all the property rights, but only enjoy the right to use and occupy the property, they are not allowed to transfer and sell the house by themselves.
4.2.2 Special targets
To purchase housing with common property rights in Xi’an, people who are in immediate need of housing must be those whose economic income is below the middle level and who do not own a home. These families do not have a high income and cannot purchase a property even if they have everything they have. In addition, the small area per capita and the low quality of living are also one of the main problems of these families, and there are restrictions on property and income, so these families are not included in the scope of low-cost housing; various talents without their own housing, whose age level belongs to the middle stage, have certain economic strength but do not have their own housing, and at the same time, various talents are not included in the scope of public housing. Therefore, from the viewpoint of supplying objects, the common property rights housing is for the “sandwich class” of urban housing, whose purchasing ability and living ability are between low-rent housing and commercial housing.
5 Suggestions for Optimizing Shared Ownership Housing
The policy of shared ownership housing is in its initial stage in Xi’an, and there are still many aspects to be improved and perfected.
5.1 Prescribed pricing and ownership shares
Prior to the land transfer, the Xi’an municipal government set the average sales price of centrally built shared ownership housing to keep it within a reasonable range. At the same time, it also specified that the sale of the housing with common property rights would be based on “one price per room”, which would fluctuate up or down by 5% on the basis of the sales price limit according to the geographical location of the housing and the type of housing. The percentage of ownership can be determined according to the relationship between different lots and periods and commercial properties, and different projects can set different percentages of ownership and include them in the contract to provide a basis for the distribution of benefits when transferring or buying and selling properties in the future. The part held by the government can be realized by a variety of direct or indirect inputs, and the part held by the home buyers can only be constituted in cash.
5.2 Management inspection at the later stage
Post-management inspection of the common ownership housing is carried out to minimize the resource depletion of the common ownership housing resources. Led by the government departments of Xi’an, the management committees of each district, county and development zone will act as the executors to effectively solve the problems that arise in the process of using the housing with common ownership rights through visits and other forms, while the local housing security departments will assume the corresponding supervisory responsibilities and set up working committees in due course to actively carry out the supervision work.